July 9, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, XTC, Adam) is a chemically modified amphetamine taken orally at all-night dance parties. Patients describe the euphoria allowing “closeness to others,” so it is sometimes called the love drug.

July 8, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Amphetamines put patients at risk for hypertensive emergencies, dysrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and hyperkalemia associated with rhabdomyolysis. In contrast to cocaine, amphetamines do not block sodium channels.

July 7, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Amphetamines enhance the release of catecholamines from presynaptic nerve terminals by altering the pH of presynaptic vesicles. Amphetamines are usually taken as pills but are occasionally crushed and injected.

July 6, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Cocaine induces coronary vasoconstriction while increasing myocardial oxygen demand. Platelet aggregation is enhanced through thrombogenic and antifibrinolytic pathways. These cumulative effects can result in coronary insufficiency.

July 5, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Dysrhythmias from cocaine may be atrial or ventricular. Atrial fibrillation and supraventricular tachycardias are likely to be due to sympathetic stimulation and often respond to benzodiazepines.

July 4, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Although sinus tachycardia is the most common rhythm in cocaine toxicity, atrial fibrillation and other supraventricular tachycardias can occur as a result of the surge in catecholamines. Life-threatening dysrhythmia may occur suddenly.

July 3, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Acute cocaine-induced hypertension can cause serious injury to the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Reported sequelae include aortic dissection, pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction, intracranial hemorrhage and stroke. 

July 2, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Cocaine toxic patients have increased motor tone and generate excessive heat. Vasoconstriction and salt and water depletion can compromise cooling, resulting in life-threatening hyperthermia with core temperatures exceeding 106° F (41.1° C).

July 1, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The primary clinical effect of cocaine is the excitation of the sympathetic nervous system. Patients with moderate toxicity are alert and awake but may have diaphoresis, tachycardia, mydriasis and hypertension without organ damage.

June 30, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction by stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors on vascular smooth muscle. Epinephrine increases myocardial contractility and heart rate through stimulation of beta1-adrenergic receptors.

June 29, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Cocaine use causes the release of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin. These neurotransmitters act on different receptor subtypes with the most important being adrenergic stimulation by norepinephrine and epinephrine.

June 28, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Cocaine, amphetamines and derivatives of amphetamines are called sympathomimetics. These agents cause central nervous system (CNS) stimulation and a cascade of adrenergic physiologic effects.

June 27, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The use of nitrates is contraindicated in patients who have recently taken sildenafil (Viagra). Sildenafil and related drugs relax vascular smooth muscle, which prolong and intensify the vasodilating effects of nitrates, resulting in severe hypotension.

June 26, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Nitroglycerin infusions are used commonly in patients with acute pulmonary edema for afterload reduction. IV nitroglycerin has a rapid offset of action and an excessive fall in blood pressure may occur.

June 25, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Some nitrate exposures occur in young adults, usually male, who inhale alkyl nitrites in the hope of enhancing sexual pleasure. Because of the sound they make when broken open, these products are best known to abusers as “poppers.”