April 4, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Historically, frostbite, like burns, was classified into degrees of injury. Anesthesia and erythema were considered to be first-degree frostbite. Superficial vesiculation surrounded by edema and erythema indicated second-degree frostbite.

April 3, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
The term frostnip refers to a superficial freezing injury manifested by transient numbness and tingling that resolves after rewarming. No tissue destruction occurs. The most common presenting symptom of frostbite is numbness.

April 2, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Cold injuries are often due to impairment or intoxication, primarily ethanol intoxication. Ethanol also produces peripheral vasodilation, which increases heat loss. Blunting of instincts can cause people to put themselves at increased risk.

April 1, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Frostbite occurs only when the tissue supercools well below 0° C (32° F). The required temperature is at least -4°C (24.8° F) and may be as low as -10° C (14° F) under some conditions.

March 31, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
The human body attempts to maintain a core temperature of about 37° C (98.6° F). Skin cooling activates the anterior hypothalamus, causing catecholamine release, thyroid stimulation, shivering thermogenesis and peripheral vasoconstriction.

March 30, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Frostbite involves tissue freezing with formation of ice crystals in the tissues. Immersion injury (trench foot) is a nonfreezing injury that results from exposure to wet cold. Pernio (chilblains) is a nonfreezing injury after exposure to dry cold.

March 29, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition of AIDS is a CD4+ cell count below 200 cells/µL or the presence of an AIDS-defining condition. At this level, immune dysfunction is severe and without ART, survival is short.

March 28, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been isolated from a wide range of body fluids, including semen, vaginal secretions, lymphocytes, cell-free plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tears, saliva, urine and breast milk.

March 27, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
The hallmark of HIV infection is CD4+ T cell destruction, leading to a deficient cell-mediated arm of the immune system. Humoral immunity is also impaired through B cell proliferation and production of abnormal antibodies.

March 26, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Postmortem testing of fresh brain samples remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of rabies in all mammalian species. The WHO recommends fluorescent antibody testing of brain smears or touch impressions.

March 25, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
The findings of hydrophobia with resultant gagging and hypersalivation are so characteristic of rabies infection that in many developing countries, water is offered to the patient as a diagnostic test.

March 24, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
The initial symptoms of rabies infection are vague and may be confused with other flulike illnesses. Presenting symptoms of furious rabies include headache, malaise, pharyngitis and weakness. These are typically followed by pruritus and paresthesia.

March 23, 2020

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Two forms of clinical rabies are described, encephalitic (furious) and paralytic (dumb). The encephalitic form predominates and represents approximately 70% of all human virus rabies presentations.