April 29, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Maternal Neonatal Nursing

Category: Maternal Neonatal Nursing 
Polycythemia leads to jaundice by increased red cell mass, with increased numbers of cells reaching senescence daily. Bowel obstruction, functional or mechanical, leads to an increased enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin as well.

April 28, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Maternal Neonatal Nursing

Category: Maternal Neonatal Nursing 
G6PD deficiencies are the most common red cell enzyme defects causing hemolysis, especially in infants of African, Mediterranean or Asian descent. Onset of jaundice is often later than in isoimmune hemolytic disease, toward 1 week of age.

April 27, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Maternal Neonatal Nursing

Category: Maternal Neonatal Nursing 
Increased bilirubin production is caused by excessive destruction of neonatal red blood cells. Destruction may be mediated by maternal antibodies (positive Coombs test) or may be due to abnormal red cell membranes (spherocytosis).

April 26, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord and exit at each intervertebral foramen. The sensory and motor fibers of each spinal nerve supply and receive information in a specific body distribution called a dermatome.

April 25, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The descending spinal tracts (corticospinal, reticulospinal, vestibulospinal) convey impulses from the brain to various muscle groups by inhibiting or exciting spinal activity. They also have a role in the control of posture and motor movements.

April 24, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The ascending spinal tracts (spinothalamic, spinocerebellar) mediate various sensations. The posterior (dorsal) column spinal tract carries the fibers for the sensations of fine touch, two-point discrimination and proprioception.

April 23, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The brainstem is the pathway between the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord. Its structures include the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain and diencephalon. The nuclei of the 12 cranial nerves arise from these structures.

April 22, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The brain receives its blood supply (20% of cardiac output) from the two internal carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries. Blood drains from the brain through venous plexuses and dural sinuses that empty into the internal jugular veins.

April 21, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The brain and spinal cord are protected by the skull and vertebrae, the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid. Three layers of meninges surround the brain and spinal cord, assisting in the production and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid.

April 20, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The Trendelenburg test is a maneuver to detect weak hip abductor muscles. Ask the patient to stand and balance first on one foot and then the other. Observing from behind, note any asymmetry or change in the level of the iliac crests.

April 19, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The Hawkins test is performed by abducting the shoulder to 90 degrees, flexing the elbow to 90 degrees, and then internally rotating the arm to its limit. Increased shoulder pain is associated with rotator cuff inflammation or a tear.

April 18, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The tibiotalar joint (ankle) consists of the articulation of the tibia, fibula and talus. It is protected by ligaments on the medial and lateral surfaces. The tibiotalar joint is a hinge joint that permits flexion and extension (dorsiflexion and plantar flexion).

April 17, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The knee consists of the articulation of the femur, tibia, and patella. Fibrocartilaginous disks (medial and lateral menisci), which cushion the tibia and femur, are attached to the tibia and the joint capsule.

April 16, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The hip joint consists of the articulation between the acetabulum and the femur. The depth of the acetabulum in the pelvic bone helps stabilize and protect the head of the femur in the joint capsule. Three bursae reduce friction in the hip.

April 15, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The temporomandibular joint consists of the articulation between the mandible and the temporal bone. Each is located in the depression just anterior to the tragus of the ear. The hinge action of the joint opens and closes the mouth.

April 14, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis) and their tendons comprise the rotator cuff, reinforcing the glenohumeral joint to stabilize the shoulder and the position of the humeral head within the joint.

April 13, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The glenohumeral joint (shoulder) consists of the articulation between the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula. The acromion and coracoid processes and the ligament between them form the arch protecting the joint.

April 12, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The elbow consists of the articulation of the humerus, radius and ulna. Its three surfaces are enclosed in a single synovial cavity, with the ligaments of the radius and ulna protecting the joint. A bursa lies between the olecranon and the skin.

April 11, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The radiocarpal joint (wrist) consists of the articulation of the radius and the carpal bones. An articular disk separates the ulna and carpal bones, and the joint is protected by ligaments and a fibrous capsule.

April 10, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The kidney serves as an endocrine gland responsible for the production of renin, which controls aldosterone secretion. It is the primary source of erythropoietin production in adults, thus influencing the body's red cell mass.