February 26, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Endoscopy is a study for evaluating persistent heartburn, dysphagia, odynophagia, and structural abnormalities. In addition to direct visualization, it allows biopsy of mucosal abnormalities and of normal mucosa.

February 25, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Odynophagia is sharp substernal pain on swallowing that may limit oral intake. It usually reflects severe erosive disease. It is most commonly associated with infectious esophagitis due to Candida, herpesviruses or CMV.

February 24, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Pharyngeal dysphagia is characterized by a sense of the bolus catching in the neck, the need to swallow repeatedly to clear food from the pharynx or coughing or choking during meals. There may be associated dysphonia or dysarthria.

February 23, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The oropharyngeal phase of swallowing is a complex process requiring elevation of the tongue, closure of the nasopharynx, relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter, closure of the airway and pharyngeal peristalsis.

February 22, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Abdominal ultrasound is useful in confirming the presence of ascites and in the guidance of paracentesis. Both ultrasound and CT imaging are useful in distinguishing between causes of portal and nonportal hypertensive ascites.

February 21, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Abdominal paracentesis is performed as a diagnostic evaluation in patients with new onset of ascites. It also is recommended for patients admitted to the hospital with cirrhosis or ascites and when patients with known ascites deteriorate clinically.

February 20, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The term “ascites” denotes the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Healthy men have little or no intraperitoneal fluid, but women normally may have up to 20 mL depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

February 19, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Lower GI bleeding is defined as that arising below the ligament of Treitz, ie, the small intestine or colon. The severity of lower GI bleeding ranges from mild anorectal bleeding to massive, large-volume hematochezia.

February 18, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Diarrhea is present in most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease). A variety of other symptoms may be present, including abdominal pain, fever, weight loss and hematochezia.

February 17, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Numerous medications can cause diarrhea. Common offenders include cholinesterase inhibitors, SSRIs, angiotensin II-receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, NSAIDs, metformin, allopurinol and orlistat. 

February 16, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Most mild diarrhea will not lead to dehydration provided the patient takes adequate oral fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes. Patients should also rest the bowel by avoiding high-fiber foods, fats, milk products, caffeine and alcohol. 

February 15, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Approximately 10 liters of fluid enter the duodenum daily, of which all but 1.5 liters are absorbed by the small intestine. The colon absorbs most of the remaining fluid, with less than 200 mL lost in the stool. 

February 14, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Healthy adults pass flatus up to 20 times daily and excrete up to 750 mL. Flatus is derived from two sources: swallowed air (primarily nitrogen) and bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrate (which produces H, CO and methane).

February 13, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Chronic excessive belching is almost always caused by supragastric belching (voluntary diaphragmatic contraction, followed by upper esophageal relaxation with air inflow to the esophagus) or true air swallowing (aerophagia).

February 12, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Virtually all stomach gas comes from swallowed air. With each swallow, 2-5 mL of air is ingested and excessive amounts may result in distention or flatulence. This may occur with eating, gum chewing and the ingestion of carbonated beverages.

February 11, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Belching (eructation) is the involuntary or voluntary release of gas from the stomach or esophagus. It occurs most frequently after meals, when gastric distention results in transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation.

February 10, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Causes of benign, self-limited hiccups include gastric distention (carbonated beverages, air swallowing), sudden temperature changes (hot then cold liquids), alcohol ingestion and states of heightened emotion (excitement, stress, laughing).

February 9, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Though usually a benign and self-limited annoyance, hiccups (singultus) may be a sign of serious underlying illness. In patients on mechanical ventilation, hiccups can trigger a full respiratory cycle and result in respiratory alkalosis.

February 8, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Most causes of acute vomiting are mild, self-limited and require no specific treatment. Patients should ingest clear liquids (broths, tea, soups, carbonated beverages) and small quantities of dry foods (soda crackers).