February 20, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The term “ascites” denotes the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Healthy men have little or no intraperitoneal fluid, but women normally may have up to 20 mL depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

February 19, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Lower GI bleeding is defined as that arising below the ligament of Treitz, ie, the small intestine or colon. The severity of lower GI bleeding ranges from mild anorectal bleeding to massive, large-volume hematochezia.

February 18, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Diarrhea is present in most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease). A variety of other symptoms may be present, including abdominal pain, fever, weight loss and hematochezia.

February 17, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Numerous medications can cause diarrhea. Common offenders include cholinesterase inhibitors, SSRIs, angiotensin II-receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, NSAIDs, metformin, allopurinol and orlistat. 

February 16, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Most mild diarrhea will not lead to dehydration provided the patient takes adequate oral fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes. Patients should also rest the bowel by avoiding high-fiber foods, fats, milk products, caffeine and alcohol. 

February 15, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Approximately 10 liters of fluid enter the duodenum daily, of which all but 1.5 liters are absorbed by the small intestine. The colon absorbs most of the remaining fluid, with less than 200 mL lost in the stool. 

February 14, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Healthy adults pass flatus up to 20 times daily and excrete up to 750 mL. Flatus is derived from two sources: swallowed air (primarily nitrogen) and bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrate (which produces H, CO and methane).

February 13, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Chronic excessive belching is almost always caused by supragastric belching (voluntary diaphragmatic contraction, followed by upper esophageal relaxation with air inflow to the esophagus) or true air swallowing (aerophagia).

February 12, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Virtually all stomach gas comes from swallowed air. With each swallow, 2-5 mL of air is ingested and excessive amounts may result in distention or flatulence. This may occur with eating, gum chewing and the ingestion of carbonated beverages.

February 11, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Belching (eructation) is the involuntary or voluntary release of gas from the stomach or esophagus. It occurs most frequently after meals, when gastric distention results in transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation.

February 10, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Causes of benign, self-limited hiccups include gastric distention (carbonated beverages, air swallowing), sudden temperature changes (hot then cold liquids), alcohol ingestion and states of heightened emotion (excitement, stress, laughing).

February 9, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Though usually a benign and self-limited annoyance, hiccups (singultus) may be a sign of serious underlying illness. In patients on mechanical ventilation, hiccups can trigger a full respiratory cycle and result in respiratory alkalosis.

February 8, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Most causes of acute vomiting are mild, self-limited and require no specific treatment. Patients should ingest clear liquids (broths, tea, soups, carbonated beverages) and small quantities of dry foods (soda crackers). 

February 7, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Folic acid is the term commonly used for pteroylmonoglutamic acid. Folic acid is present in most fruits and vegetables (especially citrus fruits and green leafy vegetables). Daily dietary requirements are 50-100 mcg.

February 6, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Abdominal surgery may lead to vitamin B₁₂ deficiency in several ways. Gastrectomy will eliminate the site of intrinsic factor production and surgical resection of the ileum will eliminate the site of vitamin B₁₂ absorption.

February 5, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Ferrous sulfate, 325 mg 1-3 times daily on an empty stomach, is a standard approach for replenishing iron stores. Nausea and constipation limit compliance. Taking ferrous sulfate with food reduces side effects but also its absorption.

February 4, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The most important cause of iron deficiency anemia in adults is chronic blood loss, especially menstrual and GI blood loss. The average monthly menstrual blood loss is approximately 50 mL but may be five times greater in some individuals. 

February 3, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
With hemorrhage, there is decreased oxygen delivery to the kidneys resulting in stabilization of a hypoxia-inducible factor in the kidneys and increased erythropoietin generation in the kidneys and liver.

February 2, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Anemias are classified according to their pathophysiologic basis, whether related to diminished production (reticulocytopenia) or to increased production due to accelerated loss of RBCs (reticulocytosis) and according to red blood cell size.