April 18, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
There are six main families of oral antidiabetic drugs: biguanides, sulfonylureas, glinides (meglitinides), thiazolidinediones (glitazones), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and gliptins. These agents are used only for type 2 diabetes.

April 17, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Not long ago, regular insulin was the only formulation considered safe for intravenous use. Today, three other short-acting insulins (insulin aspart [Novolog], insulin lispro [Humalog] and insulin glulisine [Apidra]) may also be used. 

April 16, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The most common sites of insulin subcutaneous injection are the upper arm, thigh and abdomen. Absorption is fastest and most consistent following abdominal injection and slowest following injection in the thigh.

April 15, 2015

#AskNacole | Strict Teachers & Failing Students

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
NPH insulins are supplied as cloudy suspensions that must be gently agitated before administration. Administration is by subcutaneous injection only. Like regular insulin, NPH insulins are available without prescription. 

April 14, 2015

Online Interview - Erica MacDonald & Nurse Nacole

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Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
NPH insulin (Humulin N, Novolin N), also known as isophane insulin, is prepared by conjugating regular insulin with protamine (a large protein). The presence of protamine decreases the solubility of NPH insulin and thereby retards absorption. 

April 13, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Regular insulin is supplied as a clear solution. Two concentrations are available: U-100 (100 units/mL) and U-500 (500 units/mL). Except for the U-500 formulation, all formulations of regular insulin are available without prescription.

April 12, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Regular insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R) is unmodified human insulin. The are four approved routes: subcutaneous injection, subcutaneous infusion, intramuscular injection (rare), and oral inhalation (approved but not currently used).

April 11, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Insulin aspart (NovoLog) is an analog of human insulin with a rapid onset (10 to 20 minutes) and short duration (3 to 5 hours). The drug is structurally identical to human insulin except that one amino acid, proline in position 28 of the B chain.

April 10, 2015

#AskNacole | Getting Comfortable

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The structure of insulin lispro is nearly identical to that of natural insulin. The only difference is that two amino acids have been switched. The molecules aggregate less than the molecules of regular insulin.

April 9, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Insulin lispro (Humalog) is a rapid-acting analog of regular insulin. Effects begin within 15 to 30 minutes of subcutaneous injection and persist for 3 to 6 hours. Insulin lispro acts faster than regular insulin but has a shorter duration of action.

April 8, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
All three of the rapid-acting insulins (lispro, insulin aspart and insulin glulisine) are formulated as clear solutions and all three require a prescription. For routine therapy, all three are given subQ. If needed, all three may also be given IV.

April 7, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Insulin acts in two ways to promote anabolic effects. First, it stimulates cellular transport (uptake) of glucose, amino acids, nucleotides and potassium. Second, insulin promotes synthesis of complex organic molecules.

April 6, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The metabolic actions of insulin are primarily anabolic. Insulin promotes conservation of energy and buildup of energy stores, such as glycogen. The hormone also promotes cell growth and division.

April 5, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Damage to small blood vessels and capillaries (known as the microvasculature) is common in diabetes. Destruction of small blood vessels contributes to kidney damage, blindness and various neuropathies.

April 4, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among diabetic patients. Diabetes carries an increased risk of heart disease, hypertension and stroke. Much of this pathology is due to atherosclerosis.

April 3, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The primary defect in type 1 diabetes is destruction of pancreatic beta cells, the cells responsible for insulin synthesis and release into the bloodstream. Insulin levels are reduced early in the disease and usually fall to zero later.

April 2, 2015

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The term diabetes mellitus is derived from the Greek word for fountain and the Latin word for honey. Hence, the term describes one of the prominent symptoms of untreated diabetes: production of large volumes of glucose-rich urine.