September 19, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
By blocking β1-receptors, it affects heart rate, conduction and contractility, yet by blocking β2-receptors, it tends to cause smooth muscle contraction with risk of bronchospasm in predisposed individuals.

September 18, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Third-generation β-blocker vasodilatory agents act through two mechanisms: first, direct vasodilation, mediated by the release of nitric oxide as in carvedilol and nebivolol and, second, added α-adrenergic blockade, as in labetalol and carvedilol.

September 17, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
First-generation nonselective β-blockers block all the β-receptors (β1 and β2). Second-generation cardioselective agents, such as atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, and others, have selectivity for the β1 (largely cardiac) receptors.

September 16, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
In patients with atrial fibrillation, management often aims at controlling ventricular rate rather than restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm. β-blockers, with low dose digoxin, play an important role in rate control in such patients.

September 15, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
β-blockers are no longer recommended as first-line treatment for hypertension by the Joint National Council (JNC) of the USA and have been relegated to fourth or even fifth line choices by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence of the UK.

September 14, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
β-blockade reduces the oxygen demand of the heart by reducing the double product (HR × BP) and by limiting exercise-induced increases in contractility. Of these, the most important and easiest to measure is the reduction in heart rate.

September 13, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
β-blockers were originally designed by the Nobel prize winner Sir James Black to counteract the adverse cardiac effects of adrenergic stimulation. His work led to the design of the prototype β-blocker, propranolol.

September 12, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Patellofemoral pain, also known as anterior knee pain, chondromalacia, or “runner’s knee,” describes any pain involving the patellofemoral joint. The pain affects any or all of the anterior knee structures.

September 11, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The menisci act as shock absorbers within the knee. Injuries to a meniscus can lead to pain, clicking, and locking sensation. Most meniscus injuries occur with acute injuries or repeated microtrauma, such as squatting or twisting.

September 10, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the strongest ligament in the knee. PCL injuries usually represent significant trauma and are highly associated with multi-ligament injuries and knee dislocations.

September 9, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee. It is usually injured with a valgus stress to the partially flexed knee. It can also occur with a blow to the lateral leg.

September 8, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries usually lead to acute swelling of the knee, causing difficulty with motion. After the swelling has resolved, the patient can walk with a “stiff-knee” gait or quadriceps avoidance gait because of the instability.

September 7, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) connects the posterior aspect of the lateral femoral condyle to the anterior aspect of the tibia. Its main function is to control anterior translation of the tibia on the femur.

September 6, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The knee is stabilized by the collateral ligaments against varus and valgus stresses. The tibia is limited in its anterior movement by the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and in its posterior movement by the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).

September 5, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The knee is the largest joint in the body and is susceptible to injury from trauma, inflammation, infection and degenerative changes. The knee is a hinge joint. The joint line exists between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus.

September 4, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Almost all patients with a hip fracture will require surgery. Surgery is recommended within the first 24 hours because studies have shown that delaying surgery 48 hours results in at least twice the rate of major and minor medical complications. 

September 3, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
With a hip fracture, patients typically report pain in the groin, though pain radiating to the lateral hip, buttock or knee is common. If a displaced fracture is present, the patient will not be able to bear weight and the leg may be externally rotated.

September 2, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a painful disorder caused by compression of the median nerve between the carpal ligament and other structures within the carpal tunnel. Carpal tunnel syndrome can also be a feature of many rheumatic diseases.

September 1, 2017

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
With lateral epicondylosis, there is pain with the arm and wrist extended. For example, common complaints include pain while shaking hands, lifting objects, using a computer mouse, or hitting a backhand in tennis (tennis elbow).