July 27, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Cataplexy is a transient partial or total loss of muscle tone, often triggered by laughter, anger or other emotional upsurge. Consciousness is preserved during these spells and they can last several minutes in duration.

July 26, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Narcolepsy, a primary disorder of sleep, is characterized by chronic, inappropriate daytime sleep that occurs regardless of activity or surroundings and is not relieved by increased sleep at night.

July 25, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Status epilepticus is usually defined as a clinical or electrical seizure lasting at least 15 minutes, or a series of seizures without complete recovery over a 30 minute period. After 30 minutes of seizure activity, hypoxia and acidosis occur.

July 24, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
A ketogenic diet should be considered for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. This diet should be monitored very carefully to ensure sufficient protein for body growth as well as appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation.

July 23, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Repeated seizures without an evident acute symptomatic cause or provocation (e.g. fever) are defined as epilepsy. The incidence is highest in the newborn period and higher in childhood than in later life, with another peak in the elderly.

July 22, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
A seizure is a sudden, transient disturbance of brain function, manifested by involuntary motor, sensory, autonomic or psychic phenomena, alone or in any combination, often accompanied by alteration or loss of consciousness.

July 21, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Bradycardia, high blood pressure and irregular breathing are signs of increased intracranial pressure. Third nerve palsy (with the eye deviated down and out, and a “blown” pupil) is a sign of impending temporal lobe or brainstem herniation.

July 20, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are conscious but have no access to motor or verbal expression because of massive loss of motor function of the pontine portion of the brainstem. Vertical eye movements may be preserved.

July 19, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Persistent vegetative state denotes a chronic condition in which there is preservation of the sleep-wake cycle but no awareness of self or the environment and no recovery of mental function. Sleep-wake cycles are present.

July 18, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The standard indicators of renal function are serum levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine. Their ratio is normally about 10:1. This ratio may increase when renal perfusion or urine flow is decreased, as in urinary tract obstruction or dehydration.

July 17, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Respiratory acidosis develops when alveolar ventilation is decreased, increasing PCO2 and lowering systemic pH. The kidneys compensate by increasing HCO3-  reabsorption, a process that takes several days to manifest.

July 16, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Metabolic alkalosis is characterized by an increase in (HCO3-) and pH resulting from a loss of strong acid or gain of buffer base. The most common cause for a metabolic alkalosis is the loss of gastric juice via nasogastric suction or vomiting.

July 15, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Hyperkalemia, due to decreased renal K+ excretion, mineralocorticoid deficiency or K+ release from the ICF compartment, is characterized by muscle weakness, paresthesias, tetany, ascending paralysis and arrhythmias.

July 14, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Renal potassium excretion is dependent on the urinary flow rate and continues for significant periods even after the intake of potassium is decreased. By the time urinary potassium decreases, the systemic K+ pool has been depleted significantly.

July 13, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
In the kidney, potassium is filtered at the glomerulus, reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and excreted in the distal tubule. Distal tubular potassium excretion is regulated primarily by the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.

July 12, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Patients with diabetes insipidus, whether nephrogenic or central in origin, are prone to develop profound hypernatremic dehydration as a result of unremitting urinary-free water losses (urine specific gravity < 1.010).

July 11, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Renal regulation of acid-base balance is accomplished by the reabsorption of filtered, primarily in the proximal tubule, and the excretion of H+ or HCO3- in the distal nephron to match the net input of acid or base.

July 10, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Maternal Neonatal Nursing

Category: Maternal Neonatal Nursing 
Gestational diabetes screening is a glucose challenge test performed between 24 and 28 weeks. The test consists of a 50-g oral glucose load with a plasma glucose level drawn exactly 1 hour after.

July 9, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Maternal Neonatal Nursing

Category: Maternal Neonatal Nursing 
Cystic fibrosis carrier screening should be discussed with all patients. Carrier rates, however, are highest in Caucasians, including parents of Eastern European Jewish (or Ashkenazi Jewish) descent.