September 21, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Neuromuscular blocking agents paralyze in phases. The first to become paralyzed are the levator muscle of the eyelid and the muscles of mastication. Paralysis occurs next in muscles of the limbs, abdomen and glottis.

September 20, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
All of the neuromuscular blocking agents contain at least one quaternary nitrogen atom. As a result, these drugs always carry a positive charge and therefore cannot readily cross membranes.

September 19, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Neuromuscular blocking agents prevent acetylcholine from activating nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscles, and thereby cause muscle relaxation. These drugs are given during surgery, intubation, mechanical ventilation and other procedures.

September 18, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Reversible cholinesterase inhibitors (Neostigmine) are the mainstay of therapy for myasthenia gravis. By preventing ACh inactivation, anticholinesterase agents intensify the effects of ACh from motor neurons and can increase muscle strength.

September 17, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
The “irreversible” cholinesterase inhibitors are highly toxic. These agents are used primarily as insecticides. During World War II, huge quantities of irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors were produced for possible use as nerve agents.

September 16, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Overdose with cholinesterase inhibitors causes excessive muscarinic stimulation and respiratory depression. The state produced by cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning is sometimes referred to as cholinergic crisis.

September 15, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Cholinesterase inhibitors are drugs that prevent the degradation of acetylcholine (ACh) by acetylcholinesterase (also known simply as cholinesterase). By preventing the inactivation of ACh, cholinesterase inhibitors enhance the actions of ACh.

September 14, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
By blocking muscarinic receptors in the intestine, atropine can decrease both the tone and motility of intestinal smooth muscle. This can be beneficial in conditions of excessive intestinal motility, such as mild dysentery and diverticulitis.

September 13, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Atropine produces its effects through competitive blockade at muscarinic receptors. Like all other receptor antagonists, atropine has no direct effects of its own. Rather, all responses to atropine result from preventing receptor activation.

September 12, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Atropine is found naturally in a variety of plants, including Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) and Datura stramonium (aka Jimson weed). Because of its presence in Atropa belladonna, atropine is referred to as a belladonna alkaloid.

Collaboration | Nurse Practitioner Student vs. Professional FAQ

September 11, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Bethanechol relieves urinary retention by activating muscarinic receptors of the urinary tract. Muscarinic activation relaxes the trigone and sphincter muscles, and increases voiding pressure (by contracting the detrusor muscle).

September 10, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Critical Care Nursing

Category: Critical Care Nursing 
The muscarinic agonists cause receptor activation. Since nearly all muscarinic receptors are associated with the parasympathetic nervous system, responses to muscarinic agonists closely resemble stimulation of parasympathetic nerves.

September 9, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Critical Care Nursing

Category: Critical Care Nursing 
The peripheral nervous system employs three neurotransmitters: acetylcholine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. Any given junction in the peripheral nervous system uses only one of these transmitter substances.

September 8, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Critical Care Nursing

Category: Critical Care Nursing 
The term autonomic tone refers to the steady, day-to-day influence exerted by the autonomic nervous system on a particular organ or organ system. Autonomic tone provides a basal level of control over which reflex regulation is superimposed.

September 7, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Critical Care Nursing

Category: Critical Care Nursing 
Grapefruit juice can inhibit the metabolism of certain drugs, thereby raising their blood levels. Specifically, grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, an isozyme of cytochrome P450 found in the liver and the intestinal wall.

September 6, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Critical Care Nursing

Category: Critical Care Nursing 
Direct interactions occur most commonly when drugs are combined in IV solutions. Frequently, but not always, the interaction produces a precipitate. If a precipitate appears when drugs are mixed together, that solution should be discarded.

September 5, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Critical Care Nursing

Category: Critical Care Nursing 
When a patient is taking two medications, one drug may intensify the effects of the other. This type of interaction is often termed potentiative. Potentiative interactions may be beneficial or detrimental.

September 4, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Critical Care Nursing

Category: Critical Care Nursing 
The minimum effective concentration (MEC) is defined as the plasma drug level below which therapeutic effects will not occur. Hence, to be of benefit, a drug must be present in concentrations at or above the MEC.