October 13, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease. Acute complications include hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS).

October 12, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Mild to moderate hypophosphatemia is usually asymptomatic. Because phosphate is an essential component of adenosine triphosphate, hypophosphatemia can affect a variety of organ systems and a wide variety of symptoms.

October 11, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Patients most likely to have hypophosphatemia are those who present with alcohol withdrawal, sepsis and patients with DKA or alcohol ketoacidosis in whom reintroduction of insulin and glucose causes phosphate uptake into cells.

October 10, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Acute hypophosphatemia is most commonly due to a rapid intracellular shift. Hyperventilation, glucose, insulin, volume expansion, and resolving acidosis can lead to hypophosphatemia by rapid intracellular shift.

October 9, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Both potassium and magnesium are critical to help stabilize the membrane potential, to decrease cell excitability and for the function of the Na, K-ATPase pump. Around 50% of patients with hypokalemia also have hypomagnesemia.

October 8, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Hypomagnesemia may be seen in patients with malabsorption disorders (celiac sprue and short bowel syndrome) and patients with increased magnesium excretion (chronic diarrhea or inflammatory bowel conditions).

October 7, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Patients using either loop or thiazide diuretics are at increased risk for hypomagnesemia. Both types of diuretics can inhibit magnesium reabsorption. Conversely, potassium-sparing diuretics are also magnesium sparing.

October 6, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Hypermagnesemia is a relatively rare electrolyte abnormality defined as a serum magnesium concentration above 2.2 mg/dL. Hypermagnesemia can be caused by over-the-counter laxatives and antacids.

October 5, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Patients receiving massive blood transfusions are at risk for the development of hypocalcemia because of citrate toxicity. Rapid blood transfusions and radiocontrast dyes containing citrate infusions should be monitored closely.

October 4, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Because calcium is bound to albumin and other serum proteins, hypoalbuminemia will cause a fall in measured serum calcium. The active form of calcium is ionized calcium, which is not affected by changes in albumin.

October 3, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Total body calcium is controlled by a feedback system in which parathyroid hormone induces the bone and the kidneys to increase serum calcium levels. Vitamin D facilitates intestinal calcium absorption.

October 2, 2019

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Ionized calcium is the active form of the total calcium level. The serum total calcium level represents both bound and unbound calcium and, thus, should be corrected on the basis of the albumin concentration.