February 11, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
The principal cells attacked by HIV are CD4 T cells. These cells are essential components of the immune system. They are required for production of antibodies by B lymphocytes and for activation of cytolytic T lymphocytes.

February 10, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
There are two types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is found worldwide, whereas HIV-2 is found mainly in West Africa. Although HIV-1 and HIV-2 differ with respect to genetic makeup and antigenicity, they both cause similar disease syndrome.

February 9, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
HIV is a retrovirus. Like all other viruses, retroviruses lack the machinery needed for self-replication and hence are obligate intracellular parasites. However, in contrast to other viruses, retroviruses have single-stranded RNA as their genetic material.

February 8, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
Influenza is a highly contagious infection spread via aerosolized droplets produced by coughing or sneezing. The virus enters the body through mucous membranes of the nose, mouth or eyes. Viral replication takes place in the respiratory tract.

February 7, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
In some immunocompromised patients, valacyclovir has produced a syndrome known as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS). This syndrome has not occurred in immunocompetent patients.

February 6, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
Oral valacyclovir undergoes rapid absorption followed by rapid conversion to acyclovir. When acyclovir itself is given PO, bioavailability is only 15-30%. When valacyclovir is given PO, the bioavailability is increased to about 55%.

February 5, 2016

#CarChronicles | Student Loans & Rude Folks

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
Intravenous acyclovir is generally well tolerated. The most common reactions are phlebitis and inflammation at the infusion site. Reversible nephrotoxicity, indicated by elevations in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, occurs in some patients.

February 4, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
Intravaginal miconazole can intensify the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. If the drugs must be used concurrently, anticoagulation should be monitored closely and warfarin dosage reduced as indicated.

February 3, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
Dermatophytic infections are commonly referred to as ringworm. There are four principal locations: tinea pedis (on the foot, or “athlete's foot”), tinea corporis (on the body), tinea cruris (on the groin, or “jock itch”) and tinea capitis (on the scalp).

February 2, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
Daptomycin inserts itself into the bacterial cell membrane and forms channels that permit efflux of intracellular potassium. This action depolarizes the cell membrane and inhibits synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins, and thereby causes cell death.

February 1, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases
Metronidazole is lethal to anaerobic organisms only. To exert bactericidal effects, metronidazole must first be taken up by cells and then converted into its active form. Only anaerobes can perform the conversion.

January 31, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Absorption of ciprofloxacin can be reduced by compounds that contain cations. Among these are (1) aluminum- or magnesium-containing antacids, (2) iron salts, (3) zinc salts, (4) sucralfate, (5) calcium supplements and (6) dairy products.

January 30, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones can exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Accordingly, patients with a history of myasthenia gravis should not receive these drugs.

January 29, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones pose a risk of phototoxicity (severe sunburn), characterized by burning, erythema, exudation, blistering and edema. These can occur following exposure to direct/indirect sunlight and sunlamps.

January 28, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Rarely, ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones have caused tendon rupture, usually of the Achilles tendon. When given to some individuals, fluoroquinolones disrupt the extracellular matrix of cartilage and cause swelling and pain.

January 27, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Ciprofloxacin can induce a variety of mild adverse effects, including GI reactions (nausea, vomiting) and CNS effects (dizziness, headache, confusion). Candida infections of the pharynx and vagina may develop during treatment. 

January 26, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Ciprofloxacin may be given PO or IV. Following oral dosing, the drug is absorbed rapidly but incompletely. High concentrations are achieved in urine, stool, bile, saliva, bone and prostate tissue.

January 25, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Infectious Diseases

Category: Infectious Diseases 
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) was among the first fluoroquinolones available. Ciprofloxacin inhibits two bacterial enzymes: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Both are needed for DNA replication and cell division.

January 24, 2016

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
In the United States, there are two preferred treatments for latent TB: (1) isoniazid alone taken daily for 9 months and (2) isoniazid plus rifapentine taken weekly for 3 months. Both treatments are equally effective.