October 22, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
There is no drugs that can prevent neuronal damage or reverse damage that has already occurred in Parkinson's disease. Hence, the goal with current drugs is simply to improve the patient's ability to carry out activities of daily life.

October 21, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
In Parkinson's disease, there is an imbalance between dopamine and ACh. This imbalance results from degeneration of the neurons. In the absence of dopamine, the excitatory influence of ACh goes unopposed.

October 20, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Clonidine can intensify the subjective effects of some abused drugs, including benzodiazepines, cocaine and opioids. Since clonidine costs less than these drugs, the combination allows abusers to get high for less money.

October 19, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
People who abuse cocaine, opioids (morphine, heroin) and other drugs frequently abuse clonidine as well. At high doses, clonidine can cause subjective effects like euphoria, sedation and/or hallucinations.

October 18, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Clonidine can cause CNS depression. About 35% of patients experience drowsiness, some experience outright sedation. Patients in their early weeks of treatment should be advised to avoid hazardous activities if alertness is impaired.

October 17, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Clonidine is an alpha-adrenergic agonist that causes “selective” activation of alpha receptors in the CNS. By activating central alpha receptors, clonidine reduces sympathetic outflow to blood vessels and to the heart.

October 16, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Beta blockers fall into two groups: nonselective and cardioselective agents. The nonselective agents block beta and beta receptors, whereas the cardioselective agents block beta receptors only (at usual doses).

October 15, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
By “masking” tachycardia, propranolol can delay awareness of hypoglycemia. Diabetic patients who are taking propranolol should be warned that tachycardia may no longer be a reliable indicator of hypoglycemia. 

October 14, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Esmolol differs from the other beta blockers in that it is not used for hypertension. Because of its short half-life (15 minutes), esmolol is unsuited for treating hypertension, which requires maintenance of blood levels throughout the day.

October 13, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Use of beta blockers during pregnancy can have residual effects on the newborn infant. Beta blockers can remain in the circulation for several days after birth, neonates may be at risk for bradycardia, respiratory distress and hypoglycemia.

October 12, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Beta blockade inhibits the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, posing a risk of hypoglycemia. Although suppression of glycogenolysis is inconsequential for most people, interference with this process can be detrimental to patients with diabetes.

October 11, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Blockade of beta receptors in the lung can cause constriction of the bronchi. When bronchial beta receptors are blocked in patients with asthma, the resulting increase in airway resistance can be life threatening.

October 10, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Long-term use of beta blockers can sensitize the heart to catecholamines. As a result, if a beta blocker is withdrawn abruptly, anginal pain or dysrhythmias may develop. This phenomenon is referred to as rebound excitation.

October 9, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Public speakers and other performers sometimes experience “stage fright.” Prominent symptom is tachycardia brought on by discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Beta blockers help by preventing beta-mediated tachycardia.

October 8, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Since activation of alpha receptors is required for ejaculation, blockade of these receptors can cause impotence. This form of drug-induced impotence is reversible and resolves when the alpha blocker is withdrawn.

October 7, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Dopamine has dose-dependent receptor specificity. In low doses, dopamine acts on dopamine receptors only. At moderate doses, dopamine activates beta receptors as well. At high doses, dopamine activates alpha receptors too. 

October 6, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Epinephrine may be administered topically or by injection. The drug cannot be given orally because, epinephrine and other catecholamines undergo destruction by MAO and COMT before reaching the systemic circulation.

October 5, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Following epinephrine (EpiPen) injection, it is important to get immediate medical attention. Because (1) the effects of epinephrine begin to fade in 10 to 20 minutes and (2) anaphylactic reactions can be biphasic and prolonged.

October 4, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Because it can cause alpha-mediated vasoconstriction, epinephrine is used to (1) delay absorption of local anesthetics, (2) control superficial bleeding and (3) elevate blood pressure. In the past, epinephrine was also used for nasal decongestion.

October 3, 2014

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Medical Surgical Nursing

Category: Medical Surgical Nursing 
Activation of dopamine receptors causes dilation of the renal vasculature. This effect is exploited in the treatment of shock: by dilating renal blood vessels, we can improve renal perfusion and can thereby reduce the risk of renal failure.