March 1, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Therapeutic thoracentesis is performed to relieve the dyspnea associated with a large pleural effusion and typically involves removal of 1.5 L of fluid. There are no absolute contraindications to thoracentesis.

February 29, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Thoracentesis can be performed for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. With diagnostic thoracentesis, 50 mL of pleural fluid is obtained for laboratory studies to elucidate the cause of effusion.

February 28, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The dyspnea from a larger pleural effusion is typically the result of impaired chest wall and diaphragm movement. Chest pain may be dull and aching from the effusion itself or pleuritic from localized irritation of the parietal pleura.

February 27, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Symptoms of small pleural effusions usually represent the underlying disease process and not the effusion itself. An effusion greater than 300 mL may cause symptoms on its own, usually dyspnea, chest pain or cough.

February 26, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The primary mechanism of cancer-related pleural effusion is obstruction of pleural lymphatic outflow, either via damage to lymphatic stomata or more distal involvement of the mediastinal lymph nodes.

February 25, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Patients with cirrhosis are frequently hypoalbuminemic, which leads to a chronic state of decreased plasma oncotic pressure. This imbalance between the hydrostatic and oncotic forces across the pleural membrane results in an effusion.

February 24, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The most common cause of a transudate is congestive heart failure (CHF). The increased pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure in patients with CHF results in a net flow of fluid into the pulmonary interstitium.

February 23, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Transudates are caused by either an increase in intravascular hydrostatic pressure or a decrease in intravascular oncotic pressure. This generates an increased flow of fluid into the pleural space across noninjured capillary beds.

February 22, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Pleural effusions can be classified as either transudates or exudates. Distinguishing between transudates and exudates narrows the differential diagnosis and directs management and therapy.

February 21, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The most common causes of pleural effusion in adults are congestive heart failure, pneumonia, malignancy, pulmonary embolism and cirrhosis. The most common cause in children is pneumonia, followed by heart failure and malignancy.

February 20, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The thoracic cavity is lined by thin serous membranes: the visceral pleura, which wraps around the lungs and the parietal pleura, which lines the inner surface of the thoracic cavities. The space between these two linings is called the pleural space.

February 19, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Thoracentesis is a percutaneous procedure during which a needle is inserted into the pleural space to remove fluid for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. When performed using ultrasound, thoracentesis has a low rate of complications.

February 18, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Thoracentesis is a percutaneous procedure performed to evaluate the cause of a pleural effusion or treat a large, symptomatic effusion. The most common complication of thoracentesis is pneumothorax.

February 17, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
The volume of air that moves in and out of a patient's lungs per minute is termed minute volume (E). E is the product of tidal volume (VT) and respiratory frequency or rate (f): E = VT x f.

February 16, 2024

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Major bleeding is one of the most feared complications of tracheostomy. Sources of bleeding include the thyroid vessels, anterior jugular veins, brachiocephalic (innominate) artery, carotid artery and aortic arch.