December 1, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are superior to histamine-2 receptor antagonists in GERD and ulcer healing. PPIs inhibit gastric proton pumps located on the parietal cells, producing long-lasting suppression of acid secretion.

November 30, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Antacids have significant drug interactions by altering the rate and extent of absorption of drugs, such as iron, sulfonylureas and tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics. It is recommended to take antacids 1 to 4 hours after other medications.

November 29, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
As antacids are minimally absorbed and work locally in the GI tract, the most frequent side effects are chalky taste, cramps, constipation (aluminum-containing products) or diarrhea (magnesium-containing products).

November 28, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Antacids partially neutralize the HCl in the stomach. By increasing the pH level, the activation of pepsin is also inhibited. Antacid products combined with alginic acid form a solution on the surface of gastric contents to serve as a barrier.

November 27, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Hydrochloric acid and pepsin are responsible for gastric mucosal damage found in peptic ulcer disease. Baseline acid production occurs during fasting states, whereas maximal acid production occurs following meals.

November 26, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Stress ulcers usually occur in critically ill patients or just following major trauma or serious illness. Management of stress ulcers is largely focused on prevention, with the use of PPIs or H2RAs.

November 25, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
There exist three common forms of PUD: Helicobacter pylori–positive ulcers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced ulcers and stress ulcers. H. pylori and NSAID-induced ulcers are chronic conditions that often recur in patients.

November 24, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Drug classes used to treat GERD include (1) antacids, (2) histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and (3) proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Generally, a trial of an H2RA or PPI is given for 2 weeks to confirm the diagnosis of GERD.

November 23, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
While the stomach can withstand very low pH levels and enzymatic activity of gastric secretions, the squamous cells lining the esophageal mucosa are more sensitive and readily damaged if exposed to this chemical environment.

November 22, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Slow emptying of stomach contents can increase intragastric pressure, which consequently contributes to GERD. Factors that are associated with delayed emptying include smoking and high-fat meals.

November 21, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Metoclopramide (Reglan) has been used to treat nausea and vomiting. It is a highly useful agent in the treatment of diabetic gastric stasis, postsurgical gastric stasis, and gastroesophageal reflux, which may be associated with nausea.

November 20, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
A common adverse event of phenothiazine use is sedation. Phenothiazines also have the ability to evoke extrapyramidal symptoms by blocking the central dopaminergic receptors involved in motor function, particularly at higher doses.

November 19, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Phenothiazines are a class of drugs to treat nausea and vomiting. Prochlorperazine (Compazine) and promethazine (Phenergan) are the most frequently used. Their mechanism of action presumably involves dopamine receptor blockade in the CTZ.

November 18, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
Insidious onset of nausea without vomiting is suspicious of gastroparesis, a medication-related side effect, metabolic disorders, pregnancy or even gastroesophageal reflux disease.

November 17, 2022

Nursing Tip of the Day! - Fundamentals

Category: Fundamentals 
When nausea and vomiting are associated with diarrhea, headache and myalgias, the cause is viral gastroenteritis. In this instance, symptoms should resolve spontaneously within 5 days.